Written by: Emma Buchman
Edited by: Jenny Dorsey
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Social Justice Vocabulary
Ableism: Discrimination and social prejudice that targets and marginalizes people with disabilities.
Ableist language: Language that devalues disabilities or people with disabilities. According to writer & deaf rights activist Sara Nović,
“...ableist language is a pervasive part of our lexicon. Examples in pop culture are everywhere, and you’ve almost certainly used it yourself. Frequently, ableist language… crops up in the slang we use, like calling something ‘dumb’ or ‘lame’, or making a declaration like, ‘I’m so OCD!’. Though these might feel like casual slights or exclamations, they still do damage.” (1)
Abolition: The act of ending or dismantling a system, practice, or institution.
Abolitionism: The movement to end slavery. Abolitionists fought throughout the 18th and 19th centuries to end the international slave trade and slavery as a whole. While slavery as we knew it ended in the 19th century, it continues around the world. In the U.S., slavery manifests in several ways, namely through mass incarceration of Black and Brown men at a hugely disproportionate rate to white men in our for-profit prisons.
The abolitionist movement also continues in the U.S. today. It includes advocating for the abolishment of the U.S. for-profit prison system and eliminating the slavery loophole in the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that allows slavery/involuntary servitude for those convicted of crimes.
Attention economy: A method of information sharing where human attention is treated as a scarce resource and economic theories are applied to control the flow of information. The term was coined by psychologist and economist Hebert A. Simon, who called attention “the bottleneck of human thought.” (2)
BIPOC: (pronounced “bye-pock”) Black, Indigenous, People of Color. This acronym specifically calls attention to the unique experiences of Black and Indigenous folks.
Black Lives Matter (BLM):
1. A global grassroots movement founded in 2013 after the police killing of teenager Trayvon Martin and the acquittal of his murderer. BLM’s mission is to eliminate white supremacy, highlight systemic racism and the state and vigilante violence perpetuated against Black people, and center Black excellence and joy.
2. Following the murder of George Floyd by Minneapolis police, Black Lives Matter became the movement and rallying cry from Black communities and racial justice advocates in the summer of 2020. Protests occur for months in major cities across the United States, including Baltimore, Minneapolis, New York, Seattle, and Washington D.C. Some protestors were even able to occupy areas of cities (e.g. the Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone (CHAZ) in Seattle). Demands from activists varied by location, but generally included: dismantling white supremacy; eradicating systemic racism; acknowledging the danger that police pose to Black lives that dates back to slavery; defunding and demilitarizing law enforcement; and increasing social and economic resources to BIPOC communities. Many ongoing grassroots organizations and mutual aid groups came out of the 2020 Black Lives Matter protests.
Capitalism: From Merriam-Webster: “An economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market.”
Within our current system of capitalism, the end goal is to accumulate wealth, and that has been done at the expense of the working class. While in the U.S. our mixed economy utilizes government intervention to create certain safety nets for rights such as housing, food, and healthcare, it is not enough. As legendary capitalist Ray Dalio writes in Why and How Capitalism Needs to be Reformed:
“Most capitalists don’t know how to divide the economic pie well and most socialists don’t know how to grow it well...we are now at a juncture in which people of different ideological inclinations will work together to skillfully re-engineer the system so that the pie is both divided and grown well or we will have great conflict and some form of revolution that will hurt most everyone and will shrink the pie.”
Classism: (Also called class discrimination) Prejudice and discrimination on the basis of social class.
Code-switching: In linguistics, code-switching involves using more than one language, language variation, or dialect within the same situation. Due to white supremacy, BIPOC communities throughout the United States and beyond are forced to use code-switching to be given access to the same opportunities and protections as their white counterparts.
According to Professor Courtney L. McCluney et al, who touch specifically on code-switching in the Black community,
“Broadly, code-switching involves adjusting one’s style of speech, appearance, behavior, and expression in ways that will optimize the comfort of others in exchange for fair treatment, quality service, and employment opportunities… We see examples of guidelines encouraging black people to code-switch to survive police interactions, such as ‘acting polite and respectful when stopped’ and ‘avoiding running even if you are afraid.’” (3)
As McCluney goes on to explain, while code-switching can provide opportunities to Black folks operating in anti-Black spaces, it comes at a great psychological cost:
“...We know that code-switching comes with social and psychological repercussions. Downplaying one’s racial group can generate hostility from in-group members, increasing the likelihood that those who code-switch will be accused of ‘acting white.’ Seeking to avoid stereotypes is hard work, and can deplete cognitive resources and hinder performance. Feigning commonality with coworkers also reduces authentic self-expression and contributes to burnout.”
Colonialism: The process of a nation dominating and exploiting a people or region. While very similar to imperialism, colonialism focuses on the transfer and installation of a more privileged or powerful ruling class (colonizers) to a new territory while maintaining allegiance to their country of origin. Simultaneously, the Indigenous population of the territory is removed (often by force or coercion) and their society replaced by that of the colonizers.
1. Settler colonialism: A type of colonialism where foreign groups displace Indigenous peoples and then settle permanently on the land and form their own society.
2. Exploitation colonialism: A type of colonialism where exploitation of the Indigenous population of a territory is a principal goal. According to history expert Robert Longley,
“Exploitation colonialism describes the use of force to control another country for purposes of exploiting its population as labor and its natural resources as raw material. In undertaking exploitation colonialism, the colonial power sought only to increase its wealth by using the indigenous people as low-cost labor. In contrast to settler colonialism, exploitation colonialism required fewer colonists to emigrate, since the indigenous people could be allowed to remain in place—especially if they were to be enslaved as laborers in service to the motherland.” (4)
Colonization: The process of establishing control over the land and peoples of a foreign territory.
Commodification: In capitalism, the process where anything from natural resources to ideas is thought of as a product that can turn a profit, which is defined as a “commodity”.
Communism: A political and economic philosophy of government that advocates for the elimination of private ownership, making goods publically owned and available to anyone according to their needs. This theory was developed by philosopher Karl Marx; in his 1875 work Criticism of the Gotha Programme, he wrote the now famous communist slogan, “From each according to [their] ability, to each according to [their] needs.”
Cultural appropriation: When the privileged/dominant group takes elements from the cultures of marginalized/minority groups and uses them in an exploitative or disrespectful way.
“Developed” nations: In international politics, a “developed” nation is one that is highly industrialized and where people typically have high incomes. The terms “developed” and “developing” nation are not always preferred by those living in so-called “developing” nations, as South African social psychologist Shose Kessi explains:
"I dislike the term 'developing world' because it assumes a hierarchy between countries… It paints a picture of Western societies as ideal but there are many social problems in these societies as well. It also perpetuates stereotypes about people who come from the so-called 'developing world' as backward, lazy, ignorant, irresponsible… In my view, the developed-developing relationship in many ways replaces the colonizer-colonized relationship. The idea of development is a way for rich countries to control and exploit the poor. You can see this through the development industry where billions of dollars are spent but very little gets achieved…" (5)
Disenfranchisement: Withholding or removing the ability of a person or group of people to vote.
Dominant group: The group in a society that has the most privilege and power to control a society’s value system. Minorities are defined by the dominant group, which in turn enjoys more privilege and makes the world the easiest for them to live in.
Equality: Equality focuses on opportunities: everyone has equal rights and access to opportunities and resources, regardless of their lived experience and societal circumstances. Carlon Howard, Chief impact Officer at the Equity Institute, describes the debate between equality and equity:
“...Proponents of equity-based solutions to societal problems argue that we must take into account the varied lived experiences of individuals and communities when crafting public policy. On the other hand, opponents of equity-based solutions assert this requires an unrealistic level of differentiation in services and policies, a differentiation that is almost certain to privilege certain groups over others. From this viewpoint, impartial equality should be the aim.” (6)
Equity: Equity focuses on outcomes: it acknowledges that everyone comes from different backgrounds that might prevent them from access to opportunities, even if there is equal access on paper. It works to allocate the exact resources needed to meet individuals and groups where they are and ensure they can achieve the same outcomes as their more privileged counterparts.
Harlon (referenced in the definition for “equality”) argues for an equity-based approach to social justice:
“While working towards equality is an admirable goal, this strategy can overlook the myriad circumstances that impact life outcomes. In contrast, equity recognizes the variability across different groups of people and seeks to adequately provide support based on their specific needs. With this in mind, an equity lens is necessary to truly pursue the democratic principles of liberty and justice for all.” (7)
Ethnic: Of or pertaining to a group of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared social, moral, or national similarities like values, traditions, cultures, languages, etc. Ethnicities can merge and separate as societies shift and people move or are displaced. It is separate from the concept of race. Characteristics that bind people within ethnic groups together are often passed down from generation to generation.
Feudalism: Also known as the feudal system. Feudalism outlined the predominant social, political, economic, and even cultural structures in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. It maps out how power was organized in Medieval Europe, where a powerful nobility would lord over a territory and all who lived there. These residents, or vassals, would have a sort-of reciprocal relationship with the nobility: in exchange for protection and use of the land, vassals would owe service to the lord. The lands owned by these lords were called fiefs, which the term feudalism came from.
Food apartheid: “A system of segregation that divides those with access to an abundance of nutritious food and those who have been denied that access due to systemic injustice.” (8) It was defined by farmer & food justice activist Karen Washington to differentiate a food desert, which does not consider factors like white supremacy and systemic racism that specifically make it harder for Black communities to have consistent access to sustaining food. According to Washington, “‘Food apartheid’ looks at the whole food system, along with race, geography, faith, and economics. You say food apartheid, and you get to the root cause of some of the problems around the food system.” (9)
Food desert: A 1970s-era term for areas where access to fresh foods is limited or nonexistent. This term is now widely considered problematic as it implies that this disparity is naturally existing, rather than the result of systemic injustices, and erases existing efforts of local folks towards food justice.
Food insecurity: Unreliable, inconsistent access to enough food to survive and thrive.
Food justice: According to Boston University’s Community Resource Center:
“The Food Justice Movement works to ensure universal access to nutritious, affordable, and culturally-appropriate food for all, while advocating for the well-being and safety of those involved in the food production process. The movement aims to address disparities in food access, particularly for communities of color and low-income communities, by examining the structural roots of our food system. Food Justice addresses questions of land ownership, agricultural practices, distribution of technology and resources, workers’ rights, and the historical injustices communities of color have faced.” (10)
Food sovereignty: According to the Bureau of Indian Affairs, “There’s no universal definition for food sovereignty, but it can be described as the ability of communities to determine the quantity and quality of the food that they consume by controlling how their food is produced and distributed.” (11) It was first used by the Indigenous organization Via Campesina while they were fighting for land ownership and governance in Central and South America. (12) It prioritizes issues like food access, cultural food traditions, and holistic agricultural practices.
Free market: An economic arena with limited to no governmental oversight (as opposed to a state-controlled market). Individuals own the means of production (e.g., land, materials) and employ individual workers to create goods or provide services.
Gender spectrum: The gender spectrum represents a diverse range of gender identities and expressions. It acknowledges that: (1) gender identity goes beyond one’s assigned sex at birth; (2) there are many genders beyond male and female, a gender binary endorsed by heteronormative society; (3) people’s gender identity and expression can be fluid; and (4) people can identify with more than one gender at a time or none at all.*
Gentrification: “The process when a previously dis-invested neighborhood changes significantly due to investment and development in the area, often in conjunction with the arrival of more affluent residents.” (13) Gentrification often sees the takeover of an area by wealthier residents and businesses, forcing out the preexisting community who cannot afford to keep up with the increasing costs of living. Too often, the preexisting community was already systemically marginalized, and does not have the resources to stop or adapt to the takeover.
Global North: Generally, the Global North consists of the continents in the northern hemisphere: North America, Europe, and parts of Asia. Historically, the term “Global North” implies that it contains more “developed” nations. Most of these so-called “developed” nations are former or current colonizers, while many of the countries in the Global South were colonized by countries in the Global North and have been left to recover.
Global South: Generally, the Global South refers to continents in the southern hemisphere, like Latin America, Africa, Oceania, and parts of Asia. However, it is also used to refer to so-called “Third-world countries,” i.e. regions beyond North America and Europe. (14)
Grassroots: Starting from the ground up, like starting with the roots of grass and working your way towards the top of the blade. Refers to movements and organizations made up by, and whose power is rooted in, people and community.
The Great Resignation: A movement of mass resignation by workers in the food, beverage, and hospitality (FBH) industry in response to a lack of protection and fair wages during the COVID-19 pandemic. This follows decades of policymaking and industry culture that paid too little, allowed for the abuse of FBH workers, and did not guarantee the health and safety of FBH workers at the same level as other industries.
Heteronormativity: According to the American Psychological Association,
“The assumption that heterosexuality is the standard for defining normal sexual behavior and that male–female differences and gender roles are the natural and immutable essentials in normal human relations. According to some social theorists, this assumption is fundamentally embedded in, and legitimizes, social and legal institutions that devalue, marginalize, and discriminate against people who deviate from its normative principle…” (15)
Heterosexism: Discrimination against non-heterosexual people based on the belief that heterosexuality is the most (or only) acceptable sexuality.
Heterosexuality/Heterosexualism: Generally, attraction to someone who presents as the opposite sex.*
Imperialism: Seizing control of territory through military force. While often used as a synonym for colonialism, imperialism focuses on the subjugation of one people by another “whether through settlement, sovereignty, or indirect mechanisms of control.” (16)
1. Naturally occurring in a place.
2. The earliest known inhabitants of a place, a land's original stewards.
Intersectionality / Intersectional: A concept in social justice that describes how social categorizations like race, gender, sexuality, and disability status intersect and interact with one another to create a complex network of systemic oppression. It emphasizes that a person’s overall identity can have many characteristics that, based on societal perceptions, impacts a person’s lived experience. The term was created by Professor Kimberlé Crenshaw, the civil rights advocate who also outlined the legal framework of critical race theory.
LGBTQIA2S+ / LGBTQ / LGBTQ+: An acronym that stands for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning, Intersex, Asexual, Two-Spirit, and beyond; it is also an umbrella term for people whose gender identity, sex, and/or sexual orientation defies heteronormativity.*
Marginalized/Marginalization: Also called social exclusion. To treat something as if it is unimportant; to deny individuals or groups access to different opportunities in society. The Cambridge Dictionary provides this example of marginalized: “Now that English has taken over as the main language, the country's native language has been marginalized.” (17)
There are three general types of marginalization: social, economic, and political. Numerous factors cause marginalization, but in many cases it is due to historic oppression being woven into different aspects of society. For example, white supremacy and colonization are just a couple reasons why BIPOC communities are marginalized in the United States. Often, people, places, or concepts like languages and cultural traditions are marginalized based on things like race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, disability status, or religion.
Military Industrial Complex (MIC): The end result of capitalism embedding itself in military operations: the military is run to make money by the defense industry. Numerous parties are involved, including businesses, government entities, and others in the defense sector. The coordination amongst these entities influences society in multiple ways, namely public and foreign policy. War is a business opportunity, violence makes money, and death is incidental. The term was first used by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in his 1961 Farewell Address.
Misogyny: Hatred, prejudice, or contempt for women, usually displayed by men and used to oppress women. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, “It is generally accepted that misogyny is a consequence of patriarchy (male-dominated society), and the term may be applied to certain individuals as well as larger systems, societies, or cultures.” (18)
Nationalism: Patriotic feelings for or allegiance to one’s own nation, often to the exclusion of other nations and accompanied by feelings of national superiority over other countries.
Nativism: When the interests of people already residing in a place are prioritized over (and against) those of immigrants.
Neoliberalism: A political and economic model, similar to capitalism, that emphasizes fewer government interventions and regulations over private businesses. Notably, it advocates for individual responsibility over issues such as workplace conditions and healthcare, instead of relying on governmental and legal support or regulation. (19)
Nonbinary: People who are nonbinary (also called genderqueer) do not identify solely with either gender in the gender binary (male/female). It is a vast umbrella term that can define myriad identities on the gender spectrum.*
Nonprofit Industrial Complex (NPIC): A system that capitalizes on the functions of the nonprofit sector. It began to form in the late 20th century. Nonprofits are forced to work within a complex maze of governmental oversight and the desires of a few wealthy foundations, which enables the already wealthy and powerful to essentially pool their money to share amongst themselves.
The NPIC developed in response to the successes of Black activists fighting for civil rights, the rising feminist movement, and a rising queer and trans liberation movement. It is designed to keep nonprofits at the mercy of the government and grants given by large foundations. This maintains the system, enriches the wealthy, and continues the oppression of systemic racism and white supremacy.
At the same time, it removes activists from their communities to make them closer to the foundations that fund them than to the communities they serve. In addition to creating division and pitting marginalized communities against each other, it prevents nonprofits from truly serving their communities. Rather than being given the resources and consistent funding to create systemic change (proactive and progressive), nonprofits are intentionally forced to only provide temporary social services (reactive and stagnant).
Oppression: The cruel, malicious, and/or unfair exercise of power that targets a person or a group of people. Oppression can be purposeful or consequential, and may not impact everyone within the society.
Paternalism: Acts of charity that are paternalistic in nature. That is, “Relating to or characterized by the restriction of the freedom and responsibilities of subordinates or dependents in their supposed interest.” (Oxford Dictionary)
This is a form of saviorism, where the dominant group believes they are entitled to make decisions on behalf of those receiving the charity. The most common example is the buy-one-give-one model popularized by TOMS. Another example is the placement of free community fridges in low-income neighborhoods. While often widely praised in the (white dominant) media as an effective and “feel good” means of helping others, paternalistic charity often lacks direct communication and accountability to the very community it aspires to support.
Patriarchy: A system where men are the primary holders of power and are seen as the final authority. Descent and inheritance is determined through tracing paternal roots. Patriarchy uses violence and systemic oppression to marginalize the women and female-presenting people in society.
Prison Industrial Complex (PIC): Abolitionist group Critical Resistance describes the prison industrial complex as, “the overlapping interests of government and industry that use surveillance, policing, and imprisonment as solutions to economic, social and political problems.” (20) Instead of using the prison system as one of reform and rehabilitation (as the U.S. justice system purports), stakeholders like privately-owned prisons and law enforcement agencies treat prisons and justice-involved people as components of a capitalist industry intended to maximize profit and maintain the U.S.’ current political power structure (and those who benefit most from it).
Race science: According to Angela Saini, author of Superior: The Return of Race Science, “Once upon a time, in the 19th and early 20th century, race science was just science. It was very widely accepted that races exist biologically, that possibly we are different species or different breeds as human beings and that there might be a racial hierarchy between us.” (21)
Racism: The colonialist belief that humans have inherent biological differences based on race and that it is therefore acceptable to practice racial segregation. Racism is a key component of white supremacy, and has been built into societal structures in Europe and the United States for centuries.
In their book Do the Work, W. Kamau Bell and Kate Schatz define racism as “prejudice plus power.” More specifically, “Racism is when one group has the power to carry out systemic discrimination by a) the institutional policies and practices of the society and b) by shaping the cultural beliefs and values that support those racist policies and practices.” (22)
Redlining: A New Deal-era practice carried out by the Federal Housing Administration to uplift white communities while further marginalizing Black communities. In the midst of the Great Depression, federal programs offered government-insured mortgages to prevent mass foreclosures. However, strict parameters were instituted that dictated which applicants could qualify for the program. Maps were developed that ranked the “loan worthiness” of different neighborhoods, and each neighborhood was given a grade from “A” to “D”, with “D” being the lowest. “Not coincidentally,” journalist Candace Jackson explains, “most of the ‘D’ areas were neighborhoods where Black residents lived.” On these graded maps, minority neighborhoods would often be outlined in red (hence the term redlining).
Sexism: Discrimination on the basis of sex, which typically impacts women, girls, and female-presenting people.
Socialism: A vast set of political and economic philosophies that generally center around the foundational element of social ownership of the means of production: “All people should be able to jointly use, share, and receive the benefits from both natural resources and the goods and services that are collectively produced.” In socialism, the role of government is to distribute products made by the socially-owned market in the most equitable way. In the United States, socialism is commonly misassociated with dictatorial regimes like the Soviet Union, due to their cooptation of the term (i.e. Soviet “socialism”).
Solidarity: Unity among individuals or groups based on shared experiences or interests. According to lawyer and activist Deepa Iyer, solidarity is, “a daily, lifelong practice.”
Subminimum wage: Wages paid by an employer that are lower than the legally defined minimum wage (for instance, the federal minimum wage is $7.25/hr; an hourly amount below that would be subminimum). Subminimum wage was included in the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) in 1938 to allow employers to give certain workers (like people with disabilities) a lower pay. As writer Katie Anderson explains,
“Subminimum wage… is permitted under section 14(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). The provision was created in 1938 to account for ‘substandard workers’ who were ‘not up to normal production.’ The regulation has remained, and the language around it has barely budged. According to the Department of Labor’s website, subminimum wage provides for ‘individuals whose earning or productive capacity is impaired by a physical or mental disability, including those related to age or injury, for the work to be performed.’” (23)
Systematic: Something done methodically or according to a system.
Systemic: Something involved with or affecting an entire system. We often hear this used to refer to systemic racism, meaning that racism impacts every part of a system (or systems), the structures that uphold them, and the outcomes they produce.
Underrepresented / Underserved: Individuals or groups who are not appropriately represented in major decision-making and/or are blocked from getting adequate resources.
Union: Also called a labor union. A union is an organization that represents and advocates for workers of a specific industry. Some recent famous examples include the newly-formed unions of Amazon and Starbucks workers.
Unionization: The process of a group of workers creating their own union to protect their rights as workers in their specific industry.
“Unskilled” labor: According to Senior Editor for Investopedia Julia Kagan, “‘Unskilled labor’ is an outdated term, once used to describe a segment of the workforce associated with a limited skill set or minimal economic value for the work performed. The correct term is low-wage labor.” (24)
White supremacy: According to the definition by the Challenging White Supremacy Workshop in San Francisco, “White supremacy is a historically based, institutionally perpetuated system of exploitation and oppression of continents, nations, and peoples of color by white peoples and nations of the European continent, for the purpose of maintaining and defending a system of wealth, power, and privilege.” (25)
* We are defining these terms for sexuality and gender based on the common understanding of their meaning; but honestly, it sucks that we have to put them in a box. Gender, sex, and sexuality are so subjective and personal, so just do you (and any other consenting partners) and remember that definitions don’t define who you are. Down with sex negativity!
1. Nović, S. (2021, April 5). The harmful ableist language you unknowingly use. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20210330-the-harmful-ableist-language-you-unknowingly-use
2. BER Staff. (2020, March 31). Paying Attention: The Attention Economy. Berkeley Economic Review. https://econreview.berkeley.edu/paying-attention-the-attention-economy/
3. McCluney, C.L., Robotham, K., Lee, S., Smith, R., & Durkee, M. (2019, November 15). The Costs of Code-Switching. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2019/11/the-costs-of-codeswitching
4. Longley, R. (2021, February 16). What is Colonialism? Definition and Examples. ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/colonialism-definition-and-examples-5112779#:~:text=Exploitation%20colonialism%20describes%20the%20use,people%20as%20low%2Dcost%20labor.
5. Silver, M. (2021, January 8). Memo to the People of Earth: ‘Third World’ Is An Offensive Term! NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2021/01/08/954820328/memo-to-people-of-earth-third-world-is-an-offensive-term
6. Howard, Carlon & Wilkes, R. (2022, March 10). America Cannot Fulfill The Promise of Equal Opportunity Without Equal Access. Divided We Fall. https://dividedwefall.org/equity-vs-equality/
7. Howard, Carlon & Wilkes, R. (2022, March 10). America Cannot Fulfill The Promise of Equal Opportunity Without Equal Access. Divided We Fall. https://dividedwefall.org/equity-vs-equality/
8. Regeneration. (n.d.). Food Apartheid. https://regeneration.org/nexus/food-apartheid#:~:text=Food%20apartheid%20is%20a%20system,access%20due%20to%20systemic%20injustice.
9. Brones, A. (2018, May 7). Karen Washington: It’s Not a Food Desert, It’s Food Apartheid. Guernica Magazine. https://www.guernicamag.com/karen-washington-its-not-a-food-desert-its-food-apartheid/
10. Boston University Community Resource Center. (n.d.) Food Justice. https://www.bu.edu/csc/edref-2/what-is-food-justice/#:~:text=The%20Food%20Justice%20Movement%20works,in%20the%20food%20production%20process
11. Bureau of Indian Affairs. (n.d.). Why Food Sovereignty Matters. https://www.bia.gov/service/indigenous-tourism/why-food-sovereignty-matters
12. Brones, A. (2018, May 7). Karen Washington: It’s Not a Food Desert, It’s Food Apartheid. Guernica Magazine. https://www.guernicamag.com/karen-washington-its-not-a-food-desert-its-food-apartheid/
13. Chen, E., Dorsey, J., Huang, E., & Ng, I. (2022, May 25). Understanding… Gentrification. Studio ATAO. https://www.studioatao.org/gentrification
14. Connell, R. & Dados, N. (2012). The Global South. American Sociological Association, 11(1), 12-13. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1536504212436479
15. APA Dictionary of Psychology. (2023). Heteronormativity. https://dictionary.apa.org/heteronormativity
16. Kohn, M., & Reddy, K. (2017, August 29). Colonialism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/colonialism/
17. Cambridge Dictionary. (n.d.) Marginalize. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/marginalize
18. Kendall, E. (2022, October 14). misogyny. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/misogyny
19. Manning, L. (2022, July 29). Neoliberalism: What It Is, With Examples and Pros and Cons. Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/n/neoliberalism.asp
20. Tufts University Prison Divestment. (2022). What is the Prison Industrial Complex? https://sites.tufts.edu/prisondivestment/the-pic-and-mass
21. The Code Switch Podcast. (2019, July 10). Is Race Science making a comeback? NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2019/07/10/416496218/is-race-science-making-a-comeback
22. Bell, W.K. and Schatz, K. (2022). Do the Work: An Antiracist Activity Book. Workman Publishing.
23. Anderson, K. ((2022, September 28). Subminimum Wage: What It Is, Why It’s Unjust, and Why It Needs to End. World Institute on Disability. https://wid.org/subminimum-wage-what-it-is-why-its-unjust-and-why-it-needs-to-end/
24. Kagan, J. (2022, June 14). Unskilled Labor. Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/u/unskilled-labor.asp
25. Martinez, E. (1998, February 1). What is white supremacy? Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends. https://collectiveliberation.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/What_Is_White_Supremacy_Martinez.pdf
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